Rudolf Otto (1869–1937) was a German Protestant theologian and scholar of comparative religion. Pargament’s three primary styles of religious coping are 1) self-directing, characterized by self-reliance and acknowledgement of God, 2) deferring, in which a person passively attributes responsibility to God, and 3) collaborative, which involves an active partnership between the individual and God and is most commonly associated with positive adjustment. Otto explained the numinous as a "non-rational, non-sensory experience or feeling whose primary and immediate object is outside the self." courses in religious studies, or psychology of religion for theology, or those who are just keen to understand religion further. Issue 1c (May 5). Ermanno Pavesi (2010). Nondiscrimination The Psychology of Religion. [78] This opens up the potential for therapists to directly utilize religious practices and principles in therapy, such as prayer, forgiveness, and grace. [52] Thus, performance of rituals may foster social group stability. Youth and language of faith. His work The Phenomenology of Spirit was a study of how various types of writing and thinking draw from and re-combine with the individual and group experiences of various places and times, influencing the current forms of knowledge and worldviews that are operative in a population. The Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung (1875–1961) adopted a very different posture, one that was more sympathetic to religion and more concerned with a positive appreciation of religious symbolism. The American scholar Erich Fromm (1900–1980) modified the Freudian theory and produced a more complex account of the functions of religion. Although the phenomenology of religion emerges as both a major field of study and an extremely influential approach to religion, formulating an essay on this subject poses serious difficulties. You can’t boil religion down to one essence.”. Therefore the development of social and economic security in Europe explains its corresponding secularization due to a lack of need for religion. Roberts, T. B., and Hruby, P. J. Research in the psychology of religion is best understood within particular schools, which define both the area and the relevant methodological criteria for evaluation. This sense of emotional wonder appears evident at the root of all religious experiences. 2. treating carefully--from Latin relegere (Cicero's interpretation) 'to go over again' or to carefully ponder. On the other hand, there also exist the sort of testimonies that simply seem to convey a feeling of peace or oneness – something which most of us, religious or not, may possibly relate to. [60], Religion is certainly not a guarantee for mental health. Evolutionary psychology is based on the hypothesis that, just like hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, and immune systems, cognition has functional structure that has a genetic basis, and therefore evolved by natural selection. Fowler's model has generated some empirical studies, and fuller descriptions of this research (and of these six stages) can be found in Wulff (1991). Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD, is a leading expert in the psychology of religion and spirituality. “People are attracted to religion because it provides believers the opportunity to satisfy all their basic desires over and over again. notice. The anatomy of impact: What has made the great works of psychology great? You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Some explanations for the origin of the word are: 1. re-reading--from Latin re (again) + legio(read), referring to the repetition of scripture. In Hegel's system, Religion is one of the major repositories of wisdom to be used in these struggles, representing a huge body of recollections from humanity's past in various stages of its development. One was the growing enthusiasm, first in Europe and then in America, for extending the scientific attitude and methods into the human realm. Meditation is empirical in that it involves direct experience. "The contents of ceramic vessels in the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, Turkmenistan." Religious beliefs reflect our unique cognitive ability to detect agency and intention in others and, by extension, in the natural world. ), The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, "Exploratory factor analysis of the religious maturity scale",,,,, The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice, The many methods of religious coping: Development and initial validation of the RCOPE, 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200004)56:4<519::AID-JCLP6>3.0.CO;2-1, Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping, Working with the sacred: Four approaches to religious and spiritual issues in counseling, "The future of religious participation and belief in Britain and beyond",,, A generation of seekers: The spiritual journeys of the baby boom generation,,, After heaven: Spirituality in America since the 1950s,, "Beyond literalism: Reflexive spirituality and religious meaning",, "Individualism, the validation of faith, and the social nature of religion in modernity",,+2001+individualism+the+validation+of+faith&q,,, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,,, "The psychology of Christian prayer: A review of empirical research",,,,,,, "Matters of spirituality at the end of life in the pediatric intensive care unit",,,,,+Ritual,+and+Drama&q,,, "Rituals and social structure: The moral dimension. 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